At 14:21 final Wednesday, gunman Nikolas Cruz entered Marjory Stoneman Douglas Excessive Faculty in Parkland, Florida, and started taking pictures.
Seven minutes later, he walked out, having shot lifeless 17 college students.
About 40 hours later, one survivor, Cameron Kasky, turned the primary individual to make use of the hashtag #NeverAgain on Twitter.
With these phrases, a brand new motion was born – one which, inside every week, would see the varsity’s college students march to their state capitol to confront lawmakers and demand stricter gun legal guidelines.
The #NeverAgain motion, the momentum of which has barely slowed over the previous week, has even managed to attract some early concessions from President Trump.
However it’s not a motion that exists in isolation.
By one depend, there have been 15 main protests on progressive points within the yr since President Trump took workplace, together with two Ladies’s Marches and one towards a far-right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia.
The 16th such demonstration would be the March For Our Lives on 24 March, through which college students, together with these from Parkland, will demand an finish to gun violence in colleges.
Rebecca Schneid, 16, survived the Florida taking pictures by hiding in a closet with 18 fellow college students and trainer Melissa Falkowski.
Rebecca was one of many many college students who travelled to Florida’s capital Tallahassee this week to induce lawmakers to reform gun legal guidelines.
She acknowledges that different rising actions have helped set a path for her and her fellow college students to talk up, particularly #MeToo, that was created within the wake of abuse allegations towards Hollywood mogul Harvey Weinstein and has rallied Democrats and Republicans alike.
“I believe that this by no means would have occurred if occasions of the previous yr hadn’t occurred,” she tells the BBC. “The taking pictures is a horrible factor to have occurred. It is terrible that it takes one thing like this and so many different issues prefer it for us to lastly act.
“However I do assume with the opposite actions like #MeToo and the Ladies’s March, we have seen a turning level. None of these highly effective males in Hollywood anticipated one thing like that to occur. Lawmakers and the NRA [National Rifle Association] didn’t count on this to occur.
“None of us is shocked that that is how we reacted.”
Rebecca, who interviewed fellow college students about #MeToo for the varsity newspaper final month, says there’s a broader sample of political engagement amongst college students of her age, spurred partly by a few of the insurance policies of President Trump, however extra broadly round a set of progressive points.
She and her pals attended the Ladies’s March in January, and he or she has supported different protests, together with one for local weather change consciousness. She additionally says that some college students who weren’t beforehand politically lively have now develop into concerned in #NeverAgain.
Typically, individuals attending such protests are prone to attend others on completely different points.
Dana R Fisher, a professor of sociology on the College of Maryland and the writer of the forthcoming guide American Resistance, surveyed individuals participating within the Ladies’s March in Washington on 20 January.
She discovered that just about 80% had attended the identical occasion in 2017, 41% had been on the March for Science on 22 April final yr and 26% had turned out for the Folks’s Local weather March every week later.
These current weren’t there due to one explicit challenge, Prof Fisher discovered – individuals cited a mean of two.7 points that had introduced them to the march.
“We live in an incredible renaissance of democracy,” she says.
Durations of protest within the US should not in themselves uncommon, and bigger demonstrations have occurred even lately: tens of millions turned out in 150 US cities in February 2003 to protest towards the Iraq Struggle, for instance, and about 1,000,000 individuals demanded the abolition of nuclear weapons in New York in 1982.
However Doug McAdam feels this era of public dissent is unprecedented in latest US historical past, even in comparison with the anti-Vietnam Struggle and pro-civil rights demonstrations through which he took half within the 1960s and 70s.
Now a professor of sociology at Stanford College in California, he’s an professional in social actions and feels there’s a momentum gathering amongst completely different social actions “fuelled by a degree of anger I’ve by no means seen in my lifetime”.
“My daughters and my college students say ‘what in regards to the 60s, that was comparable?’ Nevertheless it wasn’t. In any respect,” he says.
“There have been large divisions within the nation and a degree of anger. However Republicans and Democrats had a foundation for bipartisan co-operation. Washington wasn’t damaged the way in which it’s now.”
Totally different protest actions are thriving, Prof McAdam feels, as a result of they’re “all feeding off one another, rooted in a basic notion of resistance”.
However is it sufficient to easily have momentum?
Latest protests, together with the Occupy motion towards socio-economic equality and people towards President Trump’s ban on individuals from some Muslim-majority nations, ultimately petered out regardless of huge numbers turning out and the problems not going away.
“Usually, actions run out of steam when their efforts do not bear fruit,” Prof McAdam says. “Actions are exhausting issues and folks can burn out in a short time. And it might probably burn out even faster if individuals sense their actions should not having an impact.”
As an alternative, he says, the president might have inadvertently handed the #NeverAgain extra momentum by providing an early concession – taking a look at banning so-called “bump shares” that flip rifles into machine weapons.
Had the president supplied no concessions, he might have brought about the motion to expire of steam early on, Prof McAdam says.
At varied occasions over the previous yr and a half, President Trump has referred to as protests wholesome but additionally stated “thugs” had been turning out alongside paid protesters. Conservatives haven’t mobilised to wherever close to the identical extent in that interval.
However some strategies employed by conservative actions are actually being adopted by teams on the alternative finish of the political spectrum.
Within the wake of the 2016 election end result, Leah Greenberg and different former congressional staff, together with her husband Eric Levin, determined to do one thing.
They took a take a look at what the Tea Social gathering motion did in opposition to the Obama presidency – organise on a neighborhood degree and oppose, oppose, oppose – and took a leaf out of their guide.
They arrange a Google doc for individuals to counsel concepts for methods to oppose the Trump agenda at a grassroots degree, and named the motion Indivisible.
The doc has been downloaded greater than two million occasions, and Indivisible now employs 42 individuals who advise 6,000 completely different teams throughout the US, all the way down to former guide teams who’ve determined to develop into politically lively.
Teams in Indivisible’s community who weren’t essentially dedicated to gun management have rallied to help #NeverAgain and anti-gun violence teams prior to now week, Ms Greenberg says.
#NeverAgain, she says, are shortly demonstrating what might be achieved by different burgeoning actions.
“Cultural transformation can typically result in coverage modifications,” she says.
“We’re already seeing a motion inside what positions are acceptable throughout the Republican Social gathering. We’re seeing Republicans making an attempt to determine how they’ll dangle on to some floor whereas giving up different positions.”
The proof of whether or not progressive actions are succeeding of their goals, Prof Fisher says, could also be in seeing whether or not the Democratic Social gathering places ahead an agenda that may unite campaigners throughout these points.
November’s mid-term elections, throughout which Democrats can be aiming to problem Republican management of Congress, are the primary hurdle.
However she warns that short-term beneficial properties might “take a few of the air out of” protest actions earlier than they’ve absolutely matured.
Prof McAdam, in the meantime, says that if protest actions find yourself narrowing their deal with the the impeachment of Donald Trump as president, and are profitable, they could not find yourself specializing in fixing institutional modifications that acquired them out on to the streets within the first place.
And so protest actions are confronted with some dilemmas: is it higher for his or her trigger for them to stay in opposition for longer? Would possibly or not it’s higher to not search too many beneficial properties too quickly to keep away from turning into complacent?
“I do not assume there’s any hazard that the motion would really feel prefer it’s received if it takes again one or each homes of Congress,” says Leah Greenberg, of Indivisible. The truth is, she says, any such beneficial properties – as speculative as they’re at this stage – might hand renewed momentum to protest actions.
Because it stands, the #NeverAgain protesters aren’t giving up.
“We’re not afraid we’re going to lose steam,” Rebecca Schneid says. “We’re younger, we’ve got time. We have got our entire lives forward of us.”